Cannabinoid Receptor 1
A cannabinoid receptor antagonist, also known simply as a cannabinoid antagonist or as an anticannabinoid, is a type of cannabinoidergic drug that binds to cannabinoid receptors (CBR) and prevents their activation by endocannabinoids. They include antagonists, inverse agonists, and antibodies of CBRs. The discovery of the endocannabinoid system led to the development of CB1 receptor antagonists.
Cannabinoid Receptor 2
Cannabinoid receptors are of a class of cell membrane receptors under the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. Cannabinoid receptors are activated by three major groups of ligands: endocannabinoids, produced by the mammillary body; plant cannabinoids (such as Cannabidiol, produced by the cannabis plant); and synthetic cannabinoids (such as HU-210). All of the endocannabinoids and plant cannabinoids are lipophilic, such as fat soluble compounds.
Beta-caryophyllene is a sesquiterpene found in many plants such as Thai basils, cloves, cinnamon leaves and black pepper, and in minor quantities in lavender. It’s aroma has been described as peppery, woody and/or spicy. Caryophyllene is the only terpene known to interact with the endocannabinoid system (CB2). Studies show β–caryophyllene holds promise in cancer treatment plans. Research shows shows that β–caryophyllene selectively binds to the CB2 receptor and that it is a functional CB2 agonist. Further, β–caryophyllene was identified as a functional non-psychoactive CB2 receptor ligand in foodstuff and as a macrocyclic anti-inflammatory cannabinoid in cannabis.
The Fine/Rosenfeld pain study demonstrates that other phytocannabinoids in combination, especially cannabidiol (CBD) and β-caryophyllene, delivered by the oral route appear to be promising candidates for the treatment of chronic pain due to their high safety and low adverse effects profiles.
The Horváth et al study suggests β-caryophyllene, through a CB2 receptor dependent pathway, may be an excellent therapeutic agent to prevent nephrotoxicity (poisonous effect on the kidneys) caused by anti-cancer chemotherapy drugs such as cisplatin.
The Jeena, Liju et al study investigated the chemical composition of essential oil isolated from black pepper, of which caryophyllene is a main constituent, and studied its pharmacological properties. Black pepper oil was found to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties. This suggests that high-caryophyllene strains may be useful in treating a number of medical issues such as arthritis and neuropathy pain.
Beta-caryophyllene is used especially in chewing gum when combined with other spicy mixtures or citrus flavorings.
What Is Caryophyllene?
Caryophyllene is one of the tarpenes found in a variety of essential oils produced by plants including marijuana. Beta caryophyllene, also referred to as BCP is an active tarpene found in a variety of plants including cloves, black pepper, oregano and rosemary as well as marijuana. The compound is known to have a spicy smell similar to what we have in black peppers.
Over the years, a lot of research has been dedicated to studying beta caryophyllene and its effects on users. Read on below to find out more about this important tarpene and its effects upon use.
Before we cover more about caryophyllene its worthwhile to take a moment and discuss what tarpenes are. Tarpenes are described as the essential oils in cannabis that are responsible for giving each strain its characteristic aroma. As such, strains with high concentrations of beta caryophyllene have a characteristic spicy aroma. Tarpenes are produced in trichomes, the secretory cells where cannabinoids are also produced. As you will learn in this article both cannabinoids and tarpenes, including caryophyllene, work hand in hand to provide a variety of health benefits to marijuana users.
Beta Crayophyllene was first artificially synthesized back in 1964, but was only discovered to have cannabinoid properties in 2008. The compound has been used to treat a variety of conditions including inflammatory diseases including multiple sclerosis and arthritis. Other medical applications of the compound include use in treating anxiety and depression as well as eliminating insomnia. The compound can also be used in treating atherosclerosis and osteoporosis, as it has been observed to help enhance bone mass.
How Does Beta Caryophyllene Work?
This tarpene is actually classified as a cannabinoid in some circles, although it’s a tarpene, due to its action on CB2 receptors. The compound usually targets the endocannabinoid system in the body, acting on CB2 receptors and ignoring CB1 receptors. The CB1 receptors are associated with the high marijuana users experience after using the substance. The fact that this compound does not produce a high means users can actually medicate without suffering the effects of being stoned.
There are a number of marijuana strains known to have high concentrations of Beta Caryophyllene including Hash plant, OG Kush and Bubba Kush among others.
Research findings indicate that plant based Beta Crayophyllene is more effective in treating the conditions mentioned above as compared to injecting the synthetic variety. The fact that medication is possible without becoming high makes it a practical treatment alternative to many.